FDM (Fused deposition modeling) 3D printing technology is a product manufacturing method sảnin which layers of materials are combined kếtin a pattern to create a complete object. The material will be heated to melt the material, and then extruded according to the pattern edge or upon previous extrusions, creating layer by layer of the product.

Simply put, take a filament and tie it through a hot end, melt it, and then lay it in layers on the table. These layers are fused together, accumulating during the printing process, and they eventually form the finished part.


FDM 3D printing technology was developed by S. Scott Crump in 1980 of Stratasys. This company sold the first machine using FDM technology called "3D Modeler" in 1992. Materials used in FDM are thermoplastics: ABS, polyamide, nylon, wax.
Stratasys' FDM technology has now grown industry. However, the strong growth of 3D printers since 2009 is largely based not on Stratasys technology, but on a "printing method" called Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) of a famous company called FFF. MakerBot... With the FFF printing method, it is not only capable of printing prototypes, but also printing finished products to end-users. This technology has high efficiency and uses thermoplastic printing technique which is very valuable for mechanical engineers and manufacturers, so the finished product is of very good quality cơmechanistically. chemistry, heat, and chemistry.

The print speed of FDM  depends on the size and complexity of a printed object. Small objects can be printed relatively quickly while complex parts require more time. Compared with the SLA technique, FDM performs printing slower.

Because of the low cost of 3D printing machines and materials, this technology is currently the most popular and fastest-growing 3D printing technology (also known as FFF 3D printing technology). Typically, Reprap 3D printers or cheap 3D printers (Makerbot, Printrbot, Flashforge, ..)


An FDM 3D printing system includes:

- Computer and software system: The computer can read 3D files in the form of an STL extension. This is the standard format for representing solid objects in the prototyping industry. And " "cut-splitting" software to adjust the size, position, and placement of the model. Then the software will proceed to cut, split, edit the data, set parameters so that the software can output the GCODE file for the printer to read. 

- Printhead control mechanism: The print head moves in the X and Y directions through the motor. It is responsible for “drawing” each 2D printed layer according to the design of the part. The accuracy of a 3D printed part is determined by the robustness of the printhead and the quality of the motor and control sensors of the printing table. 

- Printhead and extrusion system: The extrusion system is responsible for heating and extruding the 33D printing material of thermoplastic through a nozzle to form the product. Factors such as nozzle size and plastic extrusion speed will impact the accuracy a printer can achieve, as well as print speed. The width of the extrusion line can vary (from 0.193mm to 0.965mm) and is determined by the size of the extrusion mouth.

- Printing table and Z-axis motion system: The printing table is the place to store the printed product, the print head will extrude the material onto the printing table. During printing, the Z-axis motion system moves the print bed in equal, increments to create the layers that make up the printed part. The precision of the motors that drive the Z-motion system controls the resolution and quality of the part in the Z-axis. 

- Thermoplastic or wax filament: extruded through a small nozzle of a heated mold 

- Plastic fiber supply structure 


- Is a cheap 3D printing technology, easy to repair and replace machine parts, print in large quantities, and use fewer materials to create products. 

- Fast 3D rendering speed.

- Rapid prototyping technology, simple, high reliability, easy maintenance. 

- Use thermoplastic materials that are non-toxic, odorless, and therefore will not pollute the surrounding environment.

- The device works with little noise. 


- Rarely used in assembly because the accuracy is not high. 

- The bearing capacity is not uniform.

- Surface smoothness is not high.

 Above are shared of vinnotek.com about 3D printing technology by FDM method. See you in the next post!